Duncan Hardy

Duncan Hardy, Ph.D.

Duncan Hardy is a historian of Central Europe - broadly defined - in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. He specializes in the history of the Holy Roman Empire - the vast entity at the heart of medieval and early modern Europe, which encompassed all or part of more than a dozen modern European countries. More generally, he is interested in models of state/polity formation and the debates around long-term political change in medieval and early modern Europe; religious conflicts and the late medieval and early modern Crusades; the history of diplomacy; the long history of the Reformation(s); and the comparative study of political cultures. 

In his first book, Associative Political Culture in the Holy Roman Empire, he argues that the political landscape of the imperial polity is best understood as a nexus of intertwined networks, formalized by and within leagues, alliances, and assemblies, challenging conventional interpretations of the Empire and European models of state formation more generally. His second project, which is in its preliminary research phase, examines processes of political and religious change, and particularly emerging concepts of reform, within the loose and multilateral framework of the Empire in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, with a view to rethinking the early Reformation in light of its political context. He is also working on a book of edited and translated sources illustrating German legal, social, cultural, and political history circa 1350 to 1550, which is in preparation with Manchester University Press.

Before joining the UCF Department of History, Duncan Hardy undertook undergraduate and graduate studies at the University of Oxford. He then held research fellowships at the Institute of Historical Research within the University of London and at the Université libre de Bruxelles in Belgium. In 2016 he was elected as a Title A Research Fellow at Trinity College in the University of Cambridge, a fellowship he will hold until 2022. Since 2020 he is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society.


  • Ph.D. in History [D.Phil.] from University of Oxford (2015)

Research Interests

Early Modern Europe; Late Medieval Europe; Reformation History; Political History; German History; Central Europe; Holy Roman Empire; Political Culture.

Selected Publications



  • “Were There ‘Territories’ in the German Lands of the Holy Roman Empire in the Fourteenth to Sixteenth Centuries?” in Constructing and Representing Territory in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Mario Damen and Kim Overlaet (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2021), pp. 29-52.

  • “Holy Roman Empire (1300-1650)” in Oxford Bibliographies: Renaissance and Reformation, ed. Margaret King (2021):
  • “Landfrieden,” in Handbuch Frieden im Europa der Frühen Neuzeit / Handbook of Peace in Early Modern Europe, ed. Irene Dingel, Michael Rohrschneider, Inken Schmidt-Voges, Siegrid Westphal, and Joachim Whaley (Berlin: De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2021), pp. 151-169.
  • Tage (Courts, Councils, and Diets): Political and Judicial Nodal Points in the Holy Roman Empire, c. 1300-1550,” German History, 36 (3) (2018): 381-400.
  • “The Emperorship of Sigismund of Luxemburg (1410-37): Charisma and Government in the Later Medieval Holy Roman Empire,” in Faces of Charisma: Image, Text, Object in Byzantium and the Medieval West, ed. Brigitte M. Bedos-Rezak and Martha D. Rust (Leiden: Brill, 2018), pp. 282-314.
  • “Between Regional Alliances and Imperial Assemblies: Landfrieden as a Political Concept and Discursive Strategy in the Holy Roman Empire, c. 1350-1520,” in Landfrieden – epochenübergreifend. Neue Perspektiven der Landfriedensforschung auf Verfassung, Recht, Konflikt, ed. Hendrik Baumbach and Horst Carl,Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung. Beihefte, 54 (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2018), pp. 85-120.
  • “Burgundian Clients in the South-Western Holy Roman Empire, 1410-1477: Between International Diplomacy and Regional Political Culture,” in Practices of Diplomacy in the Early Modern World, c. 1410-1800, ed. Tracey A. Sowerby and Jan Hennings, Routledge Research in Early Modern History series (Abingdon/New York: Routledge, 2017), pp. 25-43.
  • “An Alsatian Nobleman’s Account of the Second Crusade against the Hussites in 1421: A New Edition, Translation, and Interpretation,” Crusades, 15 (2016): 199-221.
  • “Reichsstädtische Bündnisse im Elsass als Beweise für eine “verbündende” politische Kultur am Oberrhein (ca. 1350-1500),” Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins, 162 (2014): 95-128.
  • “The Hundred Years War and the ‘Creation’ of the Written English Vernacular: A Reassessment,” Marginalia, 17 (2013): 18-31.
  • “The 1444-5 Expedition of the Dauphin Louis to the Upper Rhine in Geopolitical Perspective,” Journal of Medieval History, 38 (3) (2012): 358-387.


  • 2022: UCF - Research Incentive Award
  • 2021: UCF - Excellence in Research Award
  • 2021: UCF - Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award
  • 2020: Royal Historical Society - Fellowship
  • 2019: Royal Historical Society - Gladstone Prize
  • 2019: UCF Department of History - Pauley Travel Award
  • 2017: Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe - Johann Daniel Schöpflin Prize
  • 2016: German History Society - German History Society Prize
  • 2016-20: Trinity College, University of Cambridge - Title A Research Fellowship
  • 2015-16: Wiener-Anspach Foundation - Postdoctoral Fellowship
  • 2014-15: Institute of Historical Research, University of London - Scouloudi Fellowship
  • 2014: German History Society - Annual Postgraduate Bursary
  • 2014: University of Oxford, Faculty of History - Bryce Research Studentship
  • 2012/2014: Jesus College, University of Oxford - T.E. Lawrence Award for Mediaeval History
  • 2011-14: UK Arts and Humanities Research Council - Doctoral Award


Course Number Course Title Mode Date and Time Syllabus
10288 EUH2000 Western Civilization Ⅰ Face to Face (P) Tu,Th 09:00 AM - 10:15 AM Unavailable
No Description Available
11296 EUH4131 European Warfare Mixed-Mode/Reduce Seat-Time(M) M 03:00 PM - 04:15 PM Unavailable
No Description Available
20152 EUH4468 Medieval Reformation Germany Mixed-Mode/Reduce Seat-Time(M) W 03:00 PM - 04:15 PM Unavailable
No Description Available
Course Number Course Title Mode Date and Time Syllabus
80621 EUH2000 Western Civilization Ⅰ Web-Based (W) Unavailable
No Description Available
81201 EUH3142 Renaissance and Reformation Web-Based (W) Unavailable
No Description Available

No courses found for Summer 2022.

Course Number Course Title Mode Date and Time Syllabus
20812 EUH3122 Medieval Society & Civ Web-Based (W) Unavailable
No Description Available
19421 EUH3180 Religion in the Medieval World Face to Face (P) M,W,F 09:30 AM - 10:20 AM Unavailable
No Description Available
11393 EUH4131 European Warfare Mixed-Mode/Reduce Seat-Time(M) W 03:00 PM - 04:15 PM Unavailable
No Description Available
19422 EUH6939 Seminar in European History Face to Face (P) Tu 06:00 PM - 08:50 PM Unavailable
No Description Available
Course Number Course Title Mode Date and Time Syllabus
81044 EUH2000 Western Civilization Ⅰ Web-Based (W) Unavailable

What do we mean when we say that we live in the “West” or the “Western world”? What are politicians or journalists referring to when they invoke “Western values”? These are contested questions, which might elicit a variety of answers. What all these answers are likely to have in common, however, is an appeal to history. This course equips you with a grounding in the entire sweep of pre-modern history that has come to be identified with Western Civilization, from the first written records to the eighteenth century. As you explore more than 3,000 years of the history of Europe and its neighboring regions, you will discover both continuities—developments which have fundamentally shaped the world we inhabit today—and changes—aspects of past societies that are radically different from our own, and which highlight the diversity of human experiences across time and space.


By studying this broad sweep of history, and completing a variety of assignments that range from analyzing primary source evidence in group discussions to writing persuasive essays on your own, you will hone several key skills that all UCF students acquire as part of the GEP (General Education Program), specifically in the areas of Cultural Interactions, Interpretation & Evaluation, and Communication.

81305 EUH3142 Renaissance and Reformation Web-Based (W) Unavailable
Why do we call the study of history, philosophy, the arts, languages, and literature “the humanities”? Why are so many buildings in major Western cities—such as London, Paris, Berlin, and Washington, D.C.—modeled on architectural styles from Classical Greece and Rome? Why do most Christians in the world today, from Roman Catholics to Anglicans to Evangelical Protestants, identify as belonging to a particular “confession,” “denomination,” or “church”? Why do most modern political systems place important governmental and legislative powers in the hands of representative bodies, often called “parliaments,” “assemblies,” “(e)states,” or “congresses,” that claim to act on behalf of the “republic” or the “common good”?

These and many other fundamental features of modern Western societies and cultures, which we mostly take for granted, have their origins in the developments that historians have often called “the Renaissance” and “the Reformation.” In the period between about 1300 and 1700, many European institutions, technologies, and belief systems experienced profound change, paving the way for the transformations of the modern era. Equally, however, change in these four centuries was uneven and gradual, and some of it was confined to small circles of artists and merchants, theologians and intellectuals, and political elites. Many social and political structures, and basic ways of thinking and talking about the world, display substantial continuities between the late medieval era and the end of the seventeenth century, which is why historians now tend to view this phase as a long transitional “early modern” period, rather than a sudden turning point between “the Middle Ages” and “modernity.”

In this course, you will have the opportunity to learn about both the continuities and changes in the events and developments of this dynamic epoch of European history, and to assess their impact on contemporaries and on the wider world and subsequent generations. The emphasis is on developing and practicing the cognitive, analytical, and compositional skills of an independent-minded historian: you will regularly consider written and visual primary sources, and you will be encouraged to undertake your own research and make your own interpretations and arguments about the big questions relating to this period, both in class and in your writing. The course covers a range of themes and regions across this period, from the kingdoms, principalities, and cities of late medieval Europe, via the Renaissance in Italy and the spread of its ideas and principles, to the Reformations in the German lands and subsequently in Western Europe, and their wide-reaching consequences in the "wars of religion" of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
92245 EUH5208 Colloq in Early Modern Hst Face to Face (P) Tu 06:00 PM - 08:50 PM Unavailable
No Description Available

No courses found for Summer 2021.

Updated: Mar 3, 2022